Études & articles scientifiques (sujets connexes)

Cette page présente des recherches et articles scientifiques documentant des sujets connexes à la grossophobie. On y aborde notamment :

  • les mythes sur le poids (incluant la perte, le gain ou le maintien de celui-ci) ;
  • l’efficacité des diètes et les risques du « yo-yo » sur la santé ;
  • l’alimentation et la nutrition ;
  • la chirurgie bariatrique, ses résultats, risques et conséquences ;
  • la santé mentale et certaines questions psychologiques et psychiatriques ;
  • et plus encore.

Cette page contient des liens vers du contenu en anglais, car il s’agit de la langue dans laquelle la plupart des études sur ces sujets sont publiées. De plus, le contenu présenté pourrait provenir de l’extérieur du Québec, notamment des États-Unis, du Royaume-Uni et de la France.

L’équipe de Grossophobie.ca – Infos & référence a tout mis en oeuvre pour offrir une compilation d’études crédibles et pertinentes provenant du travail de chercheurs, d’institutions et de publications réputées.

Les liens sont présentés en ordre chronologique de leur publication, de la plus récente à la plus ancienne.

Raisons & causes du poids

■ La Presse (publié le 14 août 2019)
L’obésité puiserait sa source dans le cerveau, selon une étude

■ ICI Première – Première chaîne de Radio-Canada) (publié le 24 mars 2018)
8 mythes sur l’obésité déboulonnés

Extrait : « Les régimes alimentaires fonctionnent à long terme. C’est faux : 95 % des gens qui perdent du poids le reprendront un jour. »

Régimes, diètes, etc.

■ The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (Vol. 104, Issue 3-March 2019)
Body-Weight Fluctuation and Incident Diabetes Mellitus, Cardiovascular Disease, and Mortality: A 16-Year Prospective Cohort Study

Extrait : « In conclusion, after taking into account traditional cardiometabolic risk factors, higher body-weight fluctuation is likely to be independently associated with a higher mortality in a community-dwelling population. This phenomenon was observed universally across sex, obesity, and smoking status. »

■ Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome (publié le 30 déc. 2017)
Weight Cycling and Its Cardiometabolic Impact

Extrait : « Due to the slim figures appearing in social media, even young adolescents are exposed to repetitive diet and weight cycling. How-ever, weight cycling has many deleterious health consequences. Losing weight is important for cardiometabolic health; however, maintaining stable body weight might be more important according to this review of the literature. It is important to maintain a balance between losing weight and weight fluctuations to stay healthy cardiometabolically. »

■ Newsroom – University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) (publié le 3 avril 2007)
Dieting does not work, UCLA researchers report

Extrait : « Among those who were followed for fewer than two years, 23 percent gained back more weight than they had lost, while of those who were followed for at least two years, 83 percent gained back more weight than they had lost, Mann said. One study found that 50 percent of dieters weighed more than 11 pounds over their starting weight five years after the diet, she said. »

Chirurgie bariatrique

■ Bariatric Times · Clinical Development and Metabolic Insights in Total Bariatric Patient Care (Oct. 1, 2019)
“But Everything Is Supposed to Get Better After Bariatric Surgery!” Understanding Postoperative Suicide and Self-injury 

Extrait : « Insufficient education on the risks of bariatric surgery, including potential psychosocial consequences, might contribute to a patient’s overly optimistic view of the surgery. Risks associated with WLS might be downplayed by some in the bariatric surgery community, from the top down. For example, despite a number of studies providing strong evidence that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is associated with an increased risk of alcohol abuse, at the time of writing this article, this risk remains included under the “misconceptions” section of the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) website. Similarly, despite significant evidence that patients are at an increased risk for suicide following bariatric surgery, this risk also remains under the “misconceptions” section of the ASMBS website. »

■ Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases (August 2017 – Vol. 13, Issue 8)
Alcohol and other substance use after bariatric surgery: prospective evidence from a U.S. multicenter cohort study

Extrait : « Undergoing RYGB [Roux-en-Y gastric bypass] versus LAGB [Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding] was associated with twice the risk of incident AUD [Alcohol Use Disorder] symptoms. One-fifth of participants reported incident AUD symptoms within 5 years post-RYGB. »

■ BJS (formerly the British Journal of Surgery-Sept. 2016 – Vol. 103, Issue 10)
Alcohol and substance abuse, depression and suicide attempts after Roux‐en‐Y gastric bypass surgery (Abstract)

Extrait : « Before RYGB [Roux-en-Y gastric bypass] surgery, women, but not men, were at higher risk of being diagnosed with alcohol and substance use disorder compared with the reference cohort. After surgery, this was the case for both sexes. The risk of being diagnosed and treated for depression remained raised after surgery. Suicide attempts were significantly increased after RYGB. […] Patients who have undergone RYGB are at an increased risk of being diagnosed with alcohol and substance use, with an increased rate of attempted suicide compared with a non‐obese general population cohort. »

■ JAMA Surgery (Journal of American Medical Association – Apr. 2013, Vol 148, No. 4)
Increased Admission for Alcohol Dependence After Gastric Bypass Surgery Compared With Restrictive Bariatric Surgery

Extrait : « This study indicates that patients who have undergone GBS as a treatment for obesity are more likely to have been hospitalized with an alcohol-related diagnosis than patients who have undergone restrictive surgery as a treatment for obesity. This is true for both men and women. Men who have undergone GBS are more likely to attempt suicide than men who have undergone restrictive surgery. »

■ Obesity Reviews (Jan. 2013 – Vol. 14, Issue 5)
Risk of completed suicide after bariatric surgery: A systematic review

Extrait : « In conclusion, this review shows that bariatric surgery patients suffer from an increased risk of suicide, compared with the general population, although the rate we describe is lower than that reported by Tindle et al. in a trial examining precisely this topic. […] It is recommended that psychological assessment and monitoring is carried out on patients after bariatric surgery to identify those who suffer from mood disorders or suicidal ideation. »

■ The American Journal of Medicine (Nov. 2010, Vol. 123, Issue 11)
Risk of Suicide after Long-term Follow-up from Bariatric Surgery

Extrait : « These rates are substantially higher than those of the general age-matched US population over the same time period. »

L’IMC, l’indice de masse corporelle (en anglais : BMI – Body Mass Index)

■ JAMA (Journal of American Medical Association – May 10, 2016 – Vol. 315, No. 18)
Change in Body Mass Index Associated With Lowest Mortality in Denmark, 1976-2013

Extrait : « Another interesting finding in this study is that the optimal BMI in relation to mortality is placed in the overweight category in the most recent 2003-2013 cohort. This finding was consistent in both the whole population sample (optimal BMI, 27) and in a subgroup of never-smokers without history of cardiovascular disease or cancer (optimal BMI, 26.1). If this finding is confirmed in other studies, it would indicate a need to revise the WHO categories presently used to define overweight, which are based on data from before the 1990s. »

■ International Journal of Obesity (May 2016)
Misclassification of cardiometabolic health when using body mass index categories in NHANES 2005-2012. Abstract (PDF complet)

Extrait : « Yet focusing on BMI [Body Mass Index] ignores overweight and obese individuals who are cardiometabolically healthy – nearly half of overweight individuals, ~ 29% of obese individuals, and ~ 16% of obesity type 2 and 3 individuals. For these individuals, having a healthcare provider prescribe weight loss could be a misuse of time, patient effort and resources. Focusing on BMI as a proxy for health may also contribute to and exacerbate weight stigmatization, an issue that is particularly concerning given healthcare providers evince high levels of anti-fat bias. Moreover, this focus ignores the many individuals whose BMI is considered ‘normal’ yet are cardiometabolically unhealthy – 30% of this population. When healthcare providers deem these individuals as ‘healthy’ merely because they are not overweight or obese, critical diagnoses could be delayed or missed altogether. «

■ Newsroom – University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) (publié le 4 fév. 2016)
Don’t use body mass index to determine whether people are healthy, UCLA-led study says

Extrait : « The study found that close to half of Americans who are considered “overweight” by virtue of their BMIs (47.4 percent, or 34.4 million people) are healthy, as are 19.8 million who are considered “obese.”

■ National Public Radio (NPR) (publié le 4 juil. 2009)
Top 10 Reasons Why The BMI Is Bogus

Extrait : « Because the BMI is a single number between 1 and 100 (like a percentage) that comes from a mathematical formula, it carries an air of scientific authority. But it is mathematical snake oil. »

Développement, santé psychologique, troubles alimentaires, etc.

■ Current Psychiatry Reviews (publié en fév. 2009)
Body Image Disturbance and Psychopathology in Children: Research Evidence and Implications for Prevention and Treatment Abstract (PDF complet)

Extrait : « Finally, we should collectively address our values as a society regarding over-valorization of body image and appearance, particularly in girls. Like adults, children are exposed to ideal body images presented by the media. The media is an important source of information where children acquire all types of stereotypes including those on beauty, thinness, and physical appearance. Parents and teachers must be aware that social stigma and sexism are present in elementary schools. The impact of children teasing behaviors should not be dismissed as pointed out by Smolak who argues that elementary school boys’ teasing and comments about girls bodies (boys commenting on girls’ appearance, flipping their skirts, calling them ugly), are behaviors reflecting an objectification of the female body and is can serve as a precursor to later sexual harassment (which is associated with body dissatisfaction and poorer body esteem in girls). Boys can also be affected by idealized, unrealistic and very muscular male models. »

■ British Journal of Nutrition (2008)
Influence of parental attitudes in the development of children eating behaviour

Extrait : « The development of children’s food preferences involves a complex interplay of innate, familial and environmental factors, not all of which are likely to promote a healthy and varied diet. Parents employ a variety of strategies to improve their children’s eating habits some of which have been found to be counter-productive. Over-control, the offering of rewards, and the provision of nutrition information to children appear to have negative effects on food acceptance patterns. […] Parents need to understand the costs of coercive feeding practices and be given alternatives to restricting food and pressuring children to eat. »

■ Canadian Paediatric Society (Posted : Sept. 1, 2004 · Reaffirmed : Feb. 28, 2018)
Dieting in adolescence – Position Statement

Extrait : « The most important risk factors for unhealthy weight control behaviours are dissatisfaction with weight, obesity and low self-esteem. Teenagers who engage in unhealthy dieting are at risk for other health-compromising behaviours, including substance use, smoking and unprotected sex. Most dieting in teenagers is not associated with negative consequences but we must consider the physical and psychological sequelae, including eating disorders, binge eating and low self-esteem. Teenagers who diet are at risk of excess weight gain over time. »

■ Pediatrics (October 2003, Vol. 112, Issue 4)
Relation Between Dieting and Weight Change Among Preadolescents and Adolescents

Extrait : « Although medically supervised weight control may be beneficial for overweight youths, our data suggest that for many adolescents, dieting to control weight is not only ineffective, it may actually promote weight gain. »

■ Journal of Social Issues (Dec. 2002)
Dieting, Weight, and Health: Reconceptualizing Research and Policy

Note : Pas d’extrait particulier choisi, car l’ensemble du texte pourrait être cité.

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